Parkinson’s Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

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Parkinson’s disease is a brain disorder that causes unintended or uncontrollable movements, such as shaking, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination.

Symptoms usually begin gradually and worsen over time. As the disease progresses, people may have difficulty walking and talking. They may also have mental and behavioral changes, sleep problems, depression, memory difficulties, and fatigue.

While virtually anyone could be at risk for developing Parkinson’s, some research studies suggest this disease affects more men than women. It’s unclear why, but there are some differences in the way men’s and women’s brains process dopamine, a chemical that helps transmit signals in the brain.

There is no one definitive cause of Parkinson’s disease, but there are some factors that may increase your risk, including:

Age: The majority of people with Parkinson’s are over the age of 60.

Family history: Having a close relative with Parkinson’s disease increases your risk, although the exact cause is unknown.

Exposure to certain toxins: People who have been exposed to certain chemicals, such as pesticides or herbicides, may be at higher risk for developing Parkinson’s.

While there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, there are treatments available that can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. These include medication, surgery, and lifestyle changes. Physical therapy and occupational therapy can also help by teaching you how to move your body in new ways and adapt to your changing abilities.

If you think you may be experiencing symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, it’s important to see a doctor so they can properly diagnose and treat the condition. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing symptoms and preventing the disease from progressing.

For more information on Parkinson’s disease, please visit the Singapore Parkinson’s Disease Association website at


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