Singapore’s healthcare system is often held up as an example of excellence and a possible model for what could come next in the United States. Singapore has achieved universal health coverage through a mixed financing system. The country’s public statutory insurance system, MediShield Life, is complemented by a range of other programs, including employer-based health insurance, private health insurance, and government subsidies for low-income individuals.
Singapore’s health care financing system is underpinned by the belief that all stakeholders share responsibility for attaining sustainable universal health coverage. Singapore has a multipayer health care financing framework, where a single treatment episode might be covered by multiple schemes and payers, often overlapping. The system, known as the 3Ms, comprises the following programs:
- MediSave: A mandatory savings account that Singaporeans use to pay for their own health care expenses, including outpatient care, hospitalization, and long-term care. The government also contributes to the accounts of low-income individuals and seniors.
- MediShield Life: A national health insurance program that provides coverage for large hospital bills and selected outpatient treatments. The program is mandatory for all Singaporeans and permanent residents.
- MediFund: A safety net program that provides financial assistance to Singaporeans who are unable to pay their medical bills, even after using their MediSave and MediShield Life accounts.
Health Care Delivery
Singapore’s health care delivery system is a mix of public and private providers. The government operates public hospitals and polyclinics, while private providers offer a range of services, including primary care, specialist care, and diagnostic services. Primary care, which is mostly at low cost, is provided mostly by the private sector. About 80 percent of Singaporeans get such care from about 1,700 general practitioners. The rest use a system of 18 polyclinics run by the government. The Ministry of Health benchmarks the performance of Singapore’s system against international counterparts and conducts annual patient experience surveys of public health care institutions. Some health care institutions have voluntarily undertaken external accreditations, such as those provided by the Joint Commission International.
Challenges and Reforms
Singapore is achieving good health outcomes, with a total health expenditure of 4.47% of gross domestic product in 2016. However, the country faces several challenges, including the rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases and rapid population ageing, limitations in the delivery and organization of primary care and ILTC, and financial incentives that might inadvertently impede care integration. To address these challenges, Singapore’s Ministry of Health implemented a comprehensive set of reforms in 2012 under its Healthcare 2020 Masterplan. The reforms aim to:
- Strengthen primary care and community-based care
- Enhance the quality and affordability of long-term care
- Improve the integration of care across different providers and settings
- Promote healthy living and disease prevention
Singapore’s health care system is distinctive and has achieved universal health coverage through a mixed financing system. The country’s health care delivery system is a mix of public and private providers, and the Ministry of Health benchmarks the performance of Singapore’s system against international counterparts. Singapore faces several challenges, including the rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases and rapid population ageing, but has implemented a comprehensive set of reforms to address these challenges.
Singapore’s healthcare system is often held up as an example of excellence, and for good reason. The country has achieved universal health coverage through a mixed financing system, with approximately 70-80% of Singaporeans obtaining their medical care within the public health system. The government’s share of health expenditures has increased in recent years, with the aim of reducing out-of-pocket costs for citizens.
Singapore’s healthcare system is also known for its low costs and high-quality care. The country’s delivery system is geared towards raising up all its citizens, rather than achieving excellence in a few high-profile areas. Primary care is provided mostly by the private sector, with about 80% of Singaporeans receiving care from general practitioners.
In addition to its healthcare system, Singapore is also home to many world-class medical facilities and healthcare professionals. The country’s healthcare industry is constantly evolving, with the role of technology becoming increasingly important.
Overall, Singapore is an excellent place to seek medical treatment. Its healthcare system is efficient, affordable, and of high quality. With its focus on promoting healthy living and preventing disease, Singapore is a model for the world in terms of healthcare.