Vitamins and Minerals for Women’s Health

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Essential Vitamins for Women

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for maintaining proper vision, preserving the immune system, and for normal development and reproduction. It is also a powerful antioxidant which can help to remove the harmful effects of oxidative stress in the body. Preformed vitamin A is found in animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, and dairy. Provitamin A is found in plant-based foods such as fruits and vegetables. In most cases, vitamin A is first metabolized in the body to an alcohol called retinol and then to the active form, retinal. Retinal is the form of vitamin A that is used in the functioning of the retina, so that is why vitamin A deficiency can lead to a condition known as night blindness. If left untreated, the affected individual can progress to a condition known as xerophthalmia in which eyes produce a very thick mucus which can lead to corneal damage and blindness. It can also lead to dry skin and increased susceptibility to skin infections. This vitamin is also necessary for the development of the immune system and has been shown to be useful in the treatment of some infectious diseases. It is often used in people with measles who have a vitamin A deficiency as it can help to reduce the severity and mortality rates of measles. Adolescents with acne also find benefit in using vitamin A to help decrease the symptoms and outbreaks of acne. However, these benefits at high dosages are controversial – patients using vitamin A as a treatment should consult their healthcare provider first. High intake of vitamin A can also be toxic to the body and result in a condition called hypervitaminosis A. This is not common, but has been seen in patients who take large doses of vitamin A as a treatment. Symptoms of this condition can include dizziness, nausea, headaches, and in more severe cases, can lead to death. High intake of provitamin A carotenoids is not associated with toxicity as they are not efficiently metabolized to vitamin A. However, as the pigments are stored in the skin, there can be excess accumulation which leads to a yellowing of the skin called carotenemia. This is reversible once the intake is reduced. On the other hand, alcohol can decrease the absorption of vitamin A in the body. In contrast, the absorption of vitamin A from supplements is actually better if they are taken with a meal which contains fat. This is known as a bile acid-dependent process and requires the fat to be properly digested and absorbed first so that the bile acids can be released into the digestive tract to aid the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamin. When giving large doses to children, it is advisable to split the dose to two or three times per week to help ensure patient compliance and also to avoid the side effects that may occur if a large dose is given at one time. The current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adult males is 900 micrograms of retinol activity equivalents (RAE), and for adult females is 700 micrograms RAE. It is not legal for a supplement to provide more than 100% of the RDA for vitamin A as this is the upper limit of intake without medical supervision. The RDA for children is age-dependent. For infants, it ranges between 300-500 micrograms RAE. For children between the ages of 1 and 8 years, it ranges from 400-700 micrograms RAE, and for children aged between 9-13 years, the RDA is 600 micrograms RAE. There is no known benefit from taking more than this recommended amount.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a generic term that refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds, which are vital for maintaining good vision and a healthy immune system. These compounds include retinol, retinal, and beta-carotene. Retinol and retinal are both converted forms of vitamin A that come from animal products, whereas beta-carotene is a carotenoid found in plants. The recommended daily intake (RDI) of vitamin A is 700 micrograms for women, and this is easily achievable through a balanced diet. For example, one serving of liver provides up to 3,600 micrograms of vitamin A, and two servings of beef liver per week would be sufficient to meet this requirement. Whilst these values are theoretical, and the amount of vitamin A that the body actually receives may depend on that person’s individual genetic makeup and lifestyle, it is important to note that consuming large amounts of vitamin A relative to the RDI can actually be toxic. The American Heart Association recommends that we receive antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamin A, from a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables. This is because the amount of antioxidants is likely to be highest in food that is minimally processed and consumed in the form of a balanced diet, as research has yet to show any benefit to consuming antioxidant supplements. Vigorous dietary and health considerations, in addition to a large number of people with a vitamin A deficiency, are likely to continue driving the market for vitamin A supplements in the near future. Many international players have introduced a number of different forms of vitamin A supplement to capitalize on this growing market. These include dry vitamins, emulsifiers, and “all-natural” supplements, such as fish liver oil in supplements. Whatever particular type of vitamin A supplement is used, it is important for consumers to take a well-rounded approach to their vitamin and mineral intake, as vitamin A works mostly in combination with other vitamins and minerals. This includes zinc, which you will read about further in the section, “Tip 3: Factors influencing nutritional health”.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin, which means it dissolves in water and travels through the bloodstream. The human body can store vitamin B12 for years, and good amounts of it are generally found in all body tissues. It plays a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and the nervous system. Additionally, it helps with the formation of blood cells within the body, in particular by helping to build the outer layer of the cells, which is known as the cell membrane. For nerves to function and for the brain to be healthy, the cells that make up the nerves need to be protected and vitamin B12 is a major part of that protection. They are known as myelin. This vitamin is also involved in the creation of DNA, the genetic material in all cells. If you remember DNA from science lessons at school, you got to remember how the double helix ladder is formed. Well, vitamin B12 helps with one piece of that ladder being formed. DNA has a say in everything that our body does, from the growth and development and all the way to how it works. An interesting aspect about vitamin B12 is that only certain foods contain it naturally and these are mainly foods of animal origin. Some examples of these are meat, fish and dairy products. Eggs are also a good source of the vitamin. Other foods such as fortified foods and breakfast cereals contain B12 as well. This is when manufacturers add the vitamin to the food, so it becomes a source of it. However, you should get your vitamins from eating the right balance of nutritious foods. Not everyone can obtain enough vitamin B12 through food because the vitamin is not well absorbed by the body. For example, the body has a limit of how much vitamin B12 can be absorbed in the stomach at one time. If someone takes an ordinary dose of 10 micrograms, only about 1.5 micrograms can be absorbed. If a lot of vitamin B12 is included in a supplement, most of it is not absorbed. Anemia is a common side effect of vitamin B12 deficiency. This condition causes the number of red blood cells to be lower than normal, and they can be abnormally large. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, dizziness and feeling lightheaded. If the condition is mild, there may be little symptoms, yet for some, symptoms can be quite distressing and affect their daily lives. It is important to recognize the condition and treat it as soon as possible. Long term vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to irreversible damage to certain nerve cells which can cause the following: physical coordination problems and difficulty walking or balance; memory loss and difficulty concentrating; depression, irritability and changes in mood; and in severe cases, a much more serious and potentially irreversible condition called dementia. Treatment for B12 deficiency usually involves injections of the vitamin, with a doctor determining when and how often treatment should take place. This is decided based on the cause of the deficiency and the severity of the condition. If the deficiency is arising from not having enough vitamin B12 in the diet, then you can make some alterations. For example, increase your consumption of foods that contain good amounts of vitamin B12, or consider taking vitamin B12 supplements. However, it is important to get medical advice on the best ways to change the diet and check if any supplements could interfere with any other medications you take. For people who have an autoimmune disease, treatment is needed for life. An autoimmune disease is when the immune system – the body’s defense against infection – attacks and destroys body tissue that is mistaken for harmful. In this case, the immune system starts to attack the cells in the stomach that produce the protein known as intrinsic factor. This protein is responsible for helping the body to absorb vitamin B12. This medical condition is known as pernicious anemia.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D, the “sunshine vitamin,” is essential for bone health. The body produces vitamin D when the skin is directly exposed to the sun. However, it is still difficult for women to achieve enough vitamin D from the sun alone, especially for those who live in northern climates or who wear full clothes. This makes vitamin D a common nutrient of deficiency. The Institute of Medicine’s recommended daily allowance for vitamin D is 600 international units for most adults and 800 for those over the age of 70. Situations that can precipitate vitamin D deficiency, despite even a healthy diet, include older age, limited exposure to sunlight, dark skin, and trouble absorbing dietary fat. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to a decrease in bone density. In children, a severe deficiency of vitamin D can cause rickets, a disease where the bones become soft or misshapen – a surprisingly common condition in many developing countries. In adults, a lack of vitamin D and ongoing bone health issues can lead to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the severe weakening of the bones – so much so that a sudden strain, bump or fall can cause a fracture. In addition to its primary benefits in terms of bone health, some emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D may also aid in preventing quality of life challenges as of getting older, such as mental health issues like cognitive conditions. For example, research studies mentioned by the National Institutes of Health have shown that vitamin D may help in maintaining cognitive function in older people, including being able to focus and make decisions. However, more research is needed to better understand the role of vitamin D in preventing these conditions. Ongoing research is also investigating the links between vitamin D and various health problems, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and autoimmune conditions such as Crohn’s disease and multiple sclerosis. At the moment, evidence is inconclusive but the belief in the benefits of vitamin D is certainly encouraging and may see its importance grow even further in years to come. This makes vitamin D a truly vital nutrient to consider. Well, that and good ol’ calcium!

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of powerful antioxidants that protect your cells from damage. “Vitamin E is key for strong immunity and healthy skin and eyes,” says Andrea Paul, M.D., a board-certified family physician in Washington, D.C. “In the short term, more energy and, in the long term, less age-related diseases.” Besides, vitamin E is good for women’s health. A review of scientific research from 1993 to 2005 found that diets high in vitamin E associated with lower risks of developing type 2 diabetes. Another 12-year study at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston found the women who consume more vitamin E, either from food or supplements, had a lower risk of heart disease. Vitamin E helps in reducing the severity of menstrual cramps, as it is a natural anti-inflammatory agent. Women trying to get pregnant can benefit from vitamin E, it has been found that vitamin E can increase cervical mucus and improve the quality of the mucus to help sperm survive in the cervical mucus. Also, vitamin E is well-known for its positive effects in skin and hair health. It is a common ingredient in many skin care products. According to Dr. Irwin, a plastic surgeon, vitamin E not only has the capability to prevent and treat UV-induced skin wrinkling and skin, also makes a difference in skin texture. People often used topical vitamin E to promote good skin healing. Also Dr. Gohara, associate clinical professor of dermatology at Yale University says, “Vitamin E’s main function in skin care is to protect against sun damage. When you get injured by sun exposure, it can help to prevent the long term damage of the skin. It also reduces the severity of psoriasis.” However, it can lead to serious health problem if too much vitamin E consumed. For example, over consuming vitamin E from supplements can cause deficiencies when there are not enough vitamins working as nutrition. Also, high doses of vitamin E can lead to blood thinning and may increase the risk of bleeding problem. So it is important to stick to the recommended dose of vitamin E.

Vitamin K

Studies have shown potential links between vitamin K and various health benefits, spanning conditions from osteoporosis to varicose veins. Vitamin K is being researched for its benefits in a wide range of areas including skin health and appearance, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. These studies can give an idea of how much vitamin K is needed but it’s important to remember that they’re not new conclusive evidence and nothing can compare to a balanced diet in terms of absorbing all of the essential vitamins and nutrients the body needs. This balanced diet will include the necessary amount of vitamin K, with women under 50 recommended to consume 90mcg per day and women above 50 recommended to consume 120mcg per day. So with a regular and varied diet, this should be met without the need for any supplements.

The amount of vitamin K a woman needs can vary depending on her age and it is important to find the right balance. A good intake can be beneficial because it helps to reduce the risk of excessive bleeding and it also helps support overall heart, dental and bone health. However, taking too much of the vitamin especially in the form of supplements can reduce the effectiveness of certain anticoagulant medications and it can interfere with blood thinning treatments. For these reasons, women are advised to consult a healthcare professional before taking vitamin K supplements.

Vitamin K has two major functions in the body that make it an important nutrient to have. It helps to form and keep bones and it regulates blood calcium levels. This means vitamin K is important for both bone and heart health. It’s a fat-soluble vitamin. This means that the body can store it in the fatty tissues and it can be released from these stores and used as and when the body needs it. However, being fat soluble, it can also build up over time so it’s normally best to have a consistent and manageable intake rather than large sporadic amounts.

Vitamin K comes in three main forms: K1, K2, and K3. The first is found in leafy green vegetables and is the main form of vitamin K found in the body. The second form of the vitamin, called menaquinone, is made by the good bacteria in the gut and also obtained from certain foods, like fermented soybeans. Vitamin K3 is a synthetic form of the vitamin and is not recommended for use in the body as it can cause oxidative stress and other problems.

Key Minerals for Women

Calcium is best known for its role in maintaining bone health. In addition, it also supports muscle function, nerve transmission, and hormonal secretion. Based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, many Americans do not meet calcium intake recommendations. It is important to note that women’s calcium needs are particularly high because bone mass peaks around age 30 and generally declines thereafter. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for calcium is 1,000 milligrams (mg) per day for women between 19 and 50 years old; this recommendation increases to 1,200 mg per day for women over 50 years old. However, RDAs are different for certain populations. For example, the Endocrine Society recommends postmenopausal women with osteoporosis get 1,200 mg of calcium from all sources – diet and supplements. Dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurt, are high in calcium. Certain green leafy vegetables like broccoli and kale also contain a considerable amount of calcium. However, the calcium in vegetables is not as well absorbed as the calcium in dairy. Women should aim to meet their calcium needs through healthy food sources before using supplements. If a supplement is warranted, it is generally best to take calcium citrate, which is better absorbed. It is important to spread the supplement dose throughout the day and take it with food to improve absorption. Also, some studies have suggested that regularly taking calcium supplements—especially without also taking magnesium and vitamin D—may have negative effects, such as increased risk for heart diseases. Lastly, calcium can affect the absorption of medications, such as levothyroxine (a thyroid medicine) and certain antibiotics, so women should talk to their healthcare provider if they are taking these medications.


Iron is a major component of haemoglobin, the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to transport it throughout your body. If you don’t have enough iron, your body can’t make enough healthy oxygen-carrying red blood cells. A lack of red blood cells is called iron deficiency anaemia. The recommended daily amount of iron for women is 14.8 milligrams (mg), for men is 8.7mg and women over the age of 50 is 8.7mg. Full adult size red cells are constantly being made in the bone marrow to replace worn out ones. Developing red cells take about 7 days to mature in the bone marrow before getting into the circulation. To determine your body’s iron levels, particularly the storage form of iron, Ferritin, as well as Haemoglobin and a Full Blood Count, can be measured with a simple blood test. Lowered iron levels may be due to a variety of factors. For example, it is not uncommon to find that low levels are due to blood loss from heavy periods or from the gastrointestinal tract, particularly in men and post-menopausal women. Other causes of iron deficiency anaemia may include a poor diet, malabsorption of iron through the stomach or bowel, or following pregnancy. Some people, including those who have had weight-loss surgery, certain gastrointestinal disorders or diseases such as coeliac disease, may have a reduced ability to absorb the iron that they eat. Also, those with a condition called haemochromatosis should avoid consuming a large amount of iron as this leads to iron overload in the body. This is a relatively common genetic condition that causes a person to absorb too much iron from their diet. If left untreated, this can damage a number of parts of the body.


Vitamins and minerals for women’s health is a comprehensive guide that highlights the importance of vitamins and minerals in women’s health. The article first discusses the roles of vitamins and minerals in supporting women’s health, emphasizing the benefits of proper intake. It then focuses on essential vitamins for women, including vitamin A, B12, D, E, and K. Additionally, the article highlights key minerals for women, such as iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. It provides insights on meeting vitamin and mineral needs through a balanced diet, dietary supplements, and considerations for specific life stages and conditions. When I think of calcium, I often think of the mineral’s ability to help maintain strong bones. This is certainly true; over 99% of the body’s calcium is stored in the bones and teeth. But it’s not just bone health that makes calcium an essential mineral for women. Calcium is also used to help the blood vessels and muscles to contract and expand, it helps the secretion of hormones and enzymes, and it’s essential for sending messages through the nervous system. A calcium deficiency can lead to many health problems, such as numbness and tingling in the fingers, convulsions, and poor blood clotting. Postmenopausal women may also be at risk of osteoporosis as a result of a calcium deficiency. Every day, we lose calcium through our skin, nails, hair, sweat, urine and faeces, but our bodies cannot produce new calcium. That’s why it’s important to try and get enough calcium from the food we eat. Good sources of calcium include dairy foods like milk, cheese and yogurt, but there are plenty of other non-dairy sources, including leafy green vegetables such as kale and broccoli, soya products, nuts, and fish where you eat the bones, such as sardines and pilchards. Adults aged 19 to 64 need 700mg of calcium a day. You should be able to get all the calcium you need from your daily diet. However, there are a number of conditions that might increase your risk of a calcium deficiency, such as malabsorption disorders, Crohn’s disease, coeliac disease and food intolerances. If you’re at risk of a calcium deficiency or you already have one of these conditions, your GP may prescribe calcium or vitamin D supplements. It’s important not to take too much calcium, as this could lead to hypercalcaemia. This is a condition that causes high levels of calcium in the blood, which could be damaging to the bones, kidneys and heart. However, it’s quite rare to have too much calcium in your blood. Some people may experience problems such as constipation, bloating or kidney stones as a result of taking calcium supplements, but these symptoms should pass within a few days. Also, it is very rare to have serious side effects from taking too much calcium. All in all, the key to maintaining good health is to make sure you get enough calcium in your diet. Your bones, muscles and nerves will thank you for it!


Magnesium is an essential mineral that is involved in more than 300 enzyme reactions in the body. It supports a range of biological functions, including helping muscles and nerves to function properly, keeping heart rhythm steady, and supporting the immune system. Also, magnesium is important for bone health. It helps to regulate blood sugar and blood pressure levels, which is particularly relevant for women’s health, as it can help to manage some of the symptoms of PMS, including anxiety, mood swings, and irritability. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency, known as hypomagnesemia, can include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Having low magnesium for a long period of time can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes. Magnesium is present in many foods, and especially in green leafy vegetables, so generally eating a varied diet that is high in fruit, vegetables, and wholegrain cereals is enough to maintain healthy magnesium levels. However, a magnesium deficiency can occur if levels are low due to poor absorption from the gut or increased excretion from the body, for example due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain medication, or medical conditions such as hyperthyroidism. If you are concerned about your magnesium levels, speak to a healthcare professional who can arrange for a blood test to check this and offer you appropriate advice and guidance. While magnesium supplements are available, it is important not to exceed the safe upper limit from supplements or a combination of supplements and high magnesium containing medicines, such as some indigestion treatments, as this can lead to high levels of magnesium in the blood, known as hypermagnesemia. This can cause symptoms such as diarrhea and, in more severe cases, life-threatening heart problems.


Zinc is one of the key minerals for women, supporting reproductive health, hormone regulation, and the immune system. Adequate zinc intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding is essential for cell growth and the development of the fetus. Zinc also contributes to normalizing oil production in the skin, optimizing vitamin A utilization, and promoting wound healing. Because of the growth-supporting and immune-boosting roles of zinc, the mineral is necessary for early childhood development as well. Signs of zinc insufficiency are low body weight, poor appetite and taste sensation, and mental lethargy. In milder cases, twisted hair, white spots on the fingernails, and fatigue are apparent. Including good sources of zinc in meals and having a varied, balanced diet should provide enough of this essential mineral. Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. Other good food sources include beans, nuts, certain types of seafood (such as crab and lobster), whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products. For the past 6,000 years, zinc has been used to make things. Unlike other metals, zinc is hard but it is not brittle. The most notable effect of zinc on health is in protecting the immune system. When taken as a lozenge, the mineral has been shown to shorten the duration of the common cold.

Meeting Vitamin and Mineral Needs

Lastly, it is also important to keep an eye on portion sizes, which ideally should be no larger than the palm of one’s hand. By following these basic guidelines to nutrition, health, and hydration, people can maintain a healthy nutritional balance in their daily lives.

To ensure that the body stays in a state of overall hydration and can function properly, it is important to drink plenty of fluids. However, it is also important not to drink too many calories. So, with age, the saying “drink when you’re thirsty” should be changed to “drink often and choose wisely.” Alcoholic beverages can also be consumed. In fact, moderate consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in some individuals. For women, moderate consumption is defined as up to one 5-ounce glass of wine, 12 ounces of beer or even 1.5 ounces of spirits a day. Excessive drinking can lead to addiction and other severe health problems.

Protein foods, such as lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, and peas, also provide nutrients while helping to make you feel full. The body needs many different proteins to function effectively. Protein is important for many bodily functions, including growth and maintenance. But not all proteins are created equal. It is important to aim for proteins that are low in unhealthy saturated fats and rich in healthy fats and omega-3 fatty acids.

However, it is important to note that the calories in juice and mineral water drinks add up fast. Most juice drinks and sodas have added sugars. These sugars can lead to weight gain and dental problems. Always choose whole fruits over juices. The same applies to the intake of fruits, vegetables, and most other foods when trying to balance caloric intake.

A good source of folic acid, spinach can be eaten raw or cooked. Some research shows that it’s better to eat cooked spinach because, when heated, the body absorbs more of the nutrients. Also, the water content in fruits and vegetables make them an excellent source of hydration. Water is essential for proper cell function. Mineral water, while not exactly a health food, can be another source of hydration. Most mineral waters are high in magnesium and a decent source of calcium. When grabbing a glass of water in between meals, choosing a glass of mineral water can provide some necessary nutrients.

Meeting vitamin and mineral needs starts with eating a balanced diet. For example, good sources of vitamin C can be found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. From strawberries and oranges to green peppers and spinach, the options are plentiful. Vitamin C is also an antioxidant, so it is used to protect the body from the harmful effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules in the body that can cause harm to body systems.

Balanced Diet

When we talk about a balanced diet, we mean eating a variety of foods that give an adequate and proportionate amount of nutrients that are necessary for good health. This should include macronutrients (carbohydrates, protein and fats), which provide the body with energy and are needed in relatively large amounts, and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), which are needed in much smaller amounts but are vital for health. A balanced diet should not be made up of the same foods every day, but should involve a range of different foods. There are many diets and health regimes out there and it can be quite confusing – and often we just do not have the time to have as healthy a diet as we should. But there are options to help getting all the vitamins and minerals your body needs. However, taking supplements instead of eating healthily should not be recommended. Many, such as Vitamin C, are water-soluble, which means any excess will pass through the body – but megadoses of some vitamins are harmful and may even cause a hypervitaminosis, known as an overdose. This even occurs in foods – for example, very high levels of Vitamin A are found in liver that could harm an unborn baby. So what should a balanced diet be able to give us? One of the most important things is to reduce the risk of major chronic diseases. For example, we need to avoid a diet that is high in saturated fats and trans fatty acids, which are found in foods such as cakes and pastry. This is because such a diet can lead to the development of heart disease. Also, high blood pressure happens when too much salt and not enough potassium are consumed. Research suggests that diets low in fat, sugars and high in fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk of certain cancers as well as help maintain a healthy body weight. A balanced diet also helps with weight control – if someone is overweight they are a lot more likely to be prone to health conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure. The energy provided by a balanced diet helps the body to function properly and as a result we will feel more awake and able to concentrate for longer. Finally, the various nutrients in a balanced diet promote healthy cell growth, a strong immune system, a lot of energy and overall good health.

Dietary Supplements

Dietary supplements are products which contain vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and other substances. They are intended to be taken in addition to a balanced diet to ensure that we get enough of these substances each day. The Health Supplements Information Service lists more than 300 different supplements that can be purchased. These range from single vitamin or mineral supplements to combinations which can include any or every one of these substances. Examples of vitamins or minerals that might be in a supplement include Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Folic Acid, Iron, and Magnesium. It’s important to note that supplements can contain much more than the recommended amounts of vitamins or minerals and might be harmful. It’s recommended that any person taking supplements should not exceed 100% of the recommended daily allowance of any one nutrient. Some providers like Tesco have a specific product range and have a Tesco Health and Wellbeing website, which has similar products to the health shop and can be a cheaper alternative. There are three types of dietary supplements: 1. Primary Ingredients: e.g. vitamins minerals etc. 2. Non-Prescriptive Medicines: products which are not used for the treatment of diseases. 3. Herbs or Botanicals: products, which are plants and/or plant parts that are used for their scent, flavour or therapeutic properties.

Considerations for Specific Life Stages and Conditions

The article concludes by discussing ways to meet vitamin and mineral needs, including maintaining a balanced diet, using dietary supplements, and considering specific life stages and conditions, which is a topic I shall now explore further.

Magnesium is the third mineral discussed, and the article states that magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal nerve and muscle function, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. The article goes on to discuss zinc, which helps the immune system to fight off invading bacteria and viruses. It is also required for the creation of proteins and DNA in our bodies.

The article also discusses key minerals for women. The first mineral discussed is iron, which is a part of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the whole body. Women need more iron during pregnancy because their bodies produce more blood to supply oxygen and nutrients to the baby. The next mineral discussed is calcium, which is used to produce bone tissue and maintain healthy bones. It is also needed for the heart and other muscles to work properly and for blood to clot. However, if someone doesn’t get enough calcium in their diet, they are at risk of developing bone disorders such as osteoporosis.

The article then goes on to discuss essential vitamins for women, including Vitamin A, which supports good vision and healthy skin; Vitamin B12, which helps to make DNA and keeps the body’s nerve and blood cells healthy. Vitamin D helps to keep bones and teeth strong by controlling the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant, which helps to protect cells from damage, and Vitamin K is essential for the process of blood clotting.

Firstly, the article provides an overview of the importance of vitamins and minerals for women’s health. It explains the roles that vitamins and minerals play in women’s health and highlights the benefits of proper intake. These benefits include a lower chance of chronic diseases, including heart disease, stroke, and cancer, several of the leading causes of death for women. Proper intake of vitamins and minerals can also help with bone formation, anemia, and eyesight.